Frederick Douglass to William Lloyd Garrison reporting on his Frederick Douglass's tribute to John Brown, War Department, to Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass's opinion of Abraham Lincoln, Newspaper reports of Frederick Douglass's marriage to Helen Diary kept by Frederick Douglass on his tour of Europe and Frederick Douglass with his grandson Joseph H. Anthony to Frederick Douglass concerning the 40th Frederick Douglass to James G.
Blaine concerning a U. By the time of the Civil War, Douglass was one of the most famous black men in the country, known for his orations on the condition of the black race and on other issues such as women's rights. His eloquence gathered crowds at every location. His reception by leaders in England and Ireland added to his stature. Douglass and the abolitionists argued that because the aim of the Civil War was to end slavery, African Americans should be allowed to engage in the fight for their freedom.
Douglass publicized this view in his newspapers and several speeches. In August , Douglass published an account of the First Battle of Bull Run that noted that there were some blacks already in the Confederate ranks.
President Lincoln 's Emancipation Proclamation , which took effect on January 1, , declared the freedom of all slaves in Confederate-held territory. Douglass described the spirit of those awaiting the proclamation: Presidential Election of , Douglass supported John C.
Douglass was disappointed that President Lincoln did not publicly endorse suffrage for black freedmen. Douglass believed that since African-American men were fighting for the Union in the American Civil War, they deserved the right to vote.
With the North no longer obliged to return slaves to their owners in the South, Douglass fought for equality for his people. He made plans with Lincoln to move liberated slaves out of the South. During the war, Douglass also helped the Union cause by serving as a recruiter for the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment. His eldest son, Charles Douglass, joined the 54th Massachusetts Regiment, but was ill for much of his service.
The post-war ratification of the 13th Amendment outlawed slavery. The 14th Amendment provided for citizenship and equal protection under the law. The 15th Amendment protected all citizens from being discriminated against in voting because of race. In that speech, Douglass spoke frankly about Lincoln, noting what he perceived as both positive and negative attributes of the late President.
Calling Lincoln "the white man's president", Douglass criticized Lincoln's tardiness in joining the cause of emancipation, noting that Lincoln initially opposed the expansion of slavery but did not support its elimination.
But Douglass also asked, "Can any colored man, or any white man friendly to the freedom of all men, ever forget the night which followed the first day of January , when the world was to see if Abraham Lincoln would prove to be as good as his word? Lincoln shared the prejudices of his white fellow-countrymen against the Negro, it is hardly necessary to say that in his heart of hearts he loathed and hated slavery The crowd, roused by his speech, gave Douglass a standing ovation. Lincoln's widow Mary Lincoln supposedly gave Lincoln's favorite walking-stick to Douglass in appreciation.
Due to his prominence and activism during the war, Douglass received several political appointments. He served as president of the Reconstruction -era Freedman's Savings Bank. Meanwhile, white insurgents had quickly arisen in the South after the war, organizing first as secret vigilante groups, including the Ku Klux Klan.
Armed insurgency took different forms. Powerful paramilitary groups included the White League and the Red Shirts , both active during the s in the Deep South.
They operated as "the military arm of the Democratic Party", turning out Republican officeholders and disrupting elections. They enforced this by a combination of violence, late 19th-century laws imposing segregation and a concerted effort to disfranchise African Americans.
New labor and criminal laws also limited their freedom. In an effort to combat these efforts, Douglass supported the presidential campaign of Ulysses S. In , Douglass started his last newspaper, the New National Era , attempting to hold his country to its commitment to equality.
Grant believed annexation would help relieve the violent situation in the South allowing African Americans their own state. Douglass and the commission favored annexation, however, Congress remained opposed to annexation. Douglass criticized Senator Charles Sumner , who opposed annexation, stating if Sumner continued to oppose annexation he would "regard him as the worst foe the colored race has on this continent.
Grant used their provisions vigorously, suspending habeas corpus in South Carolina and sending troops there and into other states. Under his leadership over 5, arrests were made. Grant's vigor in disrupting the Klan made him unpopular among many whites, but earned Douglass's praise. An associate of Douglass wrote of Grant that African Americans "will ever cherish a grateful remembrance of his name, fame and great services. He was nominated without his knowledge.
Douglass neither campaigned for the ticket nor acknowledged that he had been nominated. However, during that year his home on South Avenue in Rochester, New York, burned down; arson was suspected. A complete issue of the North Star was lost. Douglass then moved to Washington, D. Throughout the Reconstruction era, Douglass continued speaking, and emphasized the importance of work, voting rights and actual exercise of suffrage.
Douglass's stump speech for 25 years after the end of the Civil War emphasized work to counter the racism that was then prevalent in unions. The ballot box, jury box and the cartridge box.
Let no man be kept from the ballot box because of his color. Let no woman be kept from the ballot box because of her sex. These included Bates College in Lewiston, Maine , in Douglass and Anna had five children: Charles and Rosetta helped produce his newspapers.
Anna Douglass remained a loyal supporter of her husband's public work, even though Douglass's relationships with Julia Griffiths and Ottilie Assing , two women he was professionally involved with, caused recurring speculation and scandals. Pitts was the daughter of Gideon Pitts Jr. The marriage provoked a storm of controversy, since Pitts was both white and nearly 20 years younger than Douglass.
Her family stopped speaking to her; his children considered the marriage a repudiation of their mother. However, feminist Elizabeth Cady Stanton congratulated the couple. The Freedman's Savings Bank went bankrupt on June 29, ,  just a few months after Douglass became its president in late March. Hayes was elected President, Douglass accepted an appointment as United States Marshal for the District of Columbia , which helped assure his family's financial security.
In , Douglass visited Thomas Auld, who was by then on his deathbed, and the two men reconciled. Douglass had met Auld's daughter, Amanda Auld Sears, some years prior; she had requested the meeting and had subsequently attended and cheered one of Douglass' speeches. Her father complimented her for reaching out to Douglass. The visit also appears to have brought closure to Douglass, although some criticized his effort.
That same year, Douglass bought the house which was to be the family's final home in Washington D. They expanded the house from 14 to 21 rooms, and included a china closet. In , Douglass both published the final edition of his autobiography, The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass , and received another political appointment, as Recorder of Deeds for the District of Columbia.
However, Anna Murray-Douglass died in , leaving the widower devastated. After a period of mourning, Douglass found new meaning from working with activist Ida B. He also remarried in , as mentioned above. Douglass also continued his speaking engagements and travel, both in the United States and abroad.
At the Republican National Convention , Douglass became the first African American to receive a vote for President of the United States in a major party 's roll call vote. Many African Americans, called Exodusters , escaped the Klan and racially discriminatory laws in the South by moving to large northern cities, as well as to places like Kansas where some formed all-black towns to have a greater level of freedom and autonomy.
Douglass did not favor this, nor the Back-to-Africa movement , which he thought resembled the American Colonization Society he had fought in his youth. In , at an Indianapolis conference convened by Bishop Henry McNeal Turner , Douglass spoke out against the separatist movements, urging blacks to stick it out. I cannot shut my eyes to the ugly facts before me. In , Douglass constructed rental housing for blacks, now known as Douglass Place , in the Fells Point area of Baltimore.
The complex still exists, and in was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. During that meeting, he was brought to the platform and received a standing ovation. Shortly after he returned home, Douglass died of a massive heart attack. Thousands of people passed by his coffin to show their respect. Although Douglass had attended several churches in the nation's capital, he had a pew here and donated two standing candelabras when this church had moved to a new building in He also gave many lectures there, including his last major speech, "The Lesson of the Hour.
Douglass' coffin was transported back to Rochester, New York , where he had lived for 25 years, longer than anywhere else in his life. The most influential African American of the nineteenth century, Douglass made a career of agitating the American conscience. He spoke and wrote on behalf of a variety of reform causes: But he devoted the bulk of his time, immense talent, and boundless energy to ending slavery and gaining equal rights for African Americans.
These were the central concerns of his long reform career. Douglass understood that the struggle for emancipation and equality demanded forceful, persistent, and unyielding agitation. And he recognized that African Americans must play a conspicuous role in that struggle. Less than a month before his death, when a young black man solicited his advice to an African American just starting out in the world, Douglass replied without hesitation: Many public schools have also been named in his honor.
Douglass still has living descendants today, such as Ken Morris, who is also a descendant of Booker T. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Frederick Douglass disambiguation. By country or region. To my Old Master Thomas Auld. List of things named after Frederick Douglass. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Biography portal Maryland portal. The old fences around it, and the stumps in the edge of the woods near it, and the squirrels that ran, skipped, and played upon them, were objects of interest and affection. There, too, right at the side of the hut, stood the old well.
My Bondage and My Freedom. Retrieved November 3, Retrieved April 20, Retrieved October 31, Retrieved December 22, Retrieved September 4, Retrieved September 21, The Florida Historical Quarterly.
Retrieved March 18, Big Ideas in U. The Autobiographies of Frederick Douglass. Phylon — , 40 1 , Since he did not talk, look, or act like a slave in the eyes of Northern audiences , Douglass was denounced as an imposter.
Retrieved October 6, My point here is, first, the Constitution is, according to its reading, an anti-slavery document; and, secondly, to dissolve the Union, as a means to abolish slavery, is about as wise as it would be to burn up this city, in order to get the thieves out of it. But again, we hear the motto, 'no union with slave-holders;' and I answer it, as the noble champion of liberty, N. Rogers , answered it with a more sensible motto, namely— ' No union with slave-holding.
Narrative of the Life of an American Slave. Retrieved January 8, Frederick Douglass began his own story thus: In successive autobiographies, Douglass gave more precise estimates of when he was born, his final estimate being He adopted February 14 as his birthday because his mother Harriet Bailey used to call him her "little valentine ". Note that, though Amanda Barker's web site devoted to the Douglass birthplace states that you can't find it with tour books and guides, that is no longer the case.
Archived from the original on December 22, Based on the extant records of Douglass's former owner, Aaron Anthony, historian Dickson Preston determined that Douglass was born in February Retrieved November 27, Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American slave. Written by himself 6 ed.
The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass: Frederick Douglass , Teachinghistory. Accessed June 3, The Frederick Douglass encyclopedia. Garfield to be recorder of deeds in Washington; with many other interesting and important events of his most eventful life; with an introduction by Mr. Between and , Philip S. Abridged and condensed into one volume, and supplemented with several important texts that Foner did not include, Frederick Douglass: View Text Only Version.
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The Writings of Frederick Douglass The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave “No book except perhaps Uncle Tom’s Cabin had as powerful an impact on the abolitionist movement as Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass.
Taylor (I Was Born a Slave: An Anthology of Classic Slave Narratives), an editor at Lawrence Hill, serves readers and libraries well by adapting and abridging Foner's acclaimed The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, Vols. (International Publishers, )/5(59).
Selected Writings of Douglass and Others. These selected writings are provided here specifically to support the teaching materials provided elsewhere and to meet the needs of a University of Rochester course, "Lincoln, Douglass and Black Freedom.". From: The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, (Five volumes) by Philip S. Foner International Publishers (Included on this web site by kind permission of the publishers).
The Education of Frederick Douglass. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave Chapter VII. Frederick Douglass. Boston: Published at the Anti-Slavery Office, No. 25 Cornhill. The Right to Criticize American Institutions. Frederick Douglass. The Frederick Douglass Collaborative within the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE) invites you to submit abstracts/papers/proposals for the Frederick Douglass Bicentennial Conference scheduled on April , at West Chester University.